台北偶戲館

憑藉著對偶戲藝術的熱情,偶戲館誕生了。
1998年,臺原藝術文化基金會董事長林經甫,將數十年個人收藏的戲偶捐出,希望台北市政府能為它們成立一處永久保存、展覽的地方。經過台北市政府文化局的縝密規劃,這批珍貴文物終於在「威京集團京華城社區回饋計劃案」中找到歸宿。
2004年8月7日,兼具戲偶展示、演出、教學、典藏功能的「台北偶戲館」正式開館。
「愛耍創意,愛耍偶」是本館堅持的理念。我們不只希望帶領大小朋友了解國內外傳統和現代偶戲的歷史與發展,更鼓勵大家發揮創意,運用生活素材創造出自己的布袋戲偶、皮影戲偶、懸絲偶或者各種現代偶。只要你能讓它們跟隨想像力動起來,偶們的獨特魅力就等夠立刻展現!
台北偶戲館期待接續傳統與現代,連結東方與西方偶戲藝術,成為國內外朋友認識偶、欣賞偶、把玩偶的最佳公共場域。

戲神為戲劇界的守護神,許多傳統戲班都會供奉「田都元帥」或「西秦王爺」,或兩者兼祀。相傳田都元帥因其擅長音樂,而被唐玄宗召見,主管戲劇,而被奉為守護神。也有人說田都元帥為唐代名將,出兵打仗時不幸被困,遂組織戲團表演給敵軍觀賞,再趁其不備突襲而大獲全勝,由皇帝敕封為「大元帥」。
西秦王爺則傳說是唐玄宗,因其喜愛歌舞樂曲,創立「梨園」,而被戲劇界尊為開山祖。由於玄宗曾進駐西秦屬地,因此民間稱他為「西秦王爺」。
依信仰的不同,劇團也衍生出相關的禁忌,例如:信奉田都元帥者,因感念螃蟹的救命之恩,所以不吃螃蟹;而相傳西秦王爺曾被蛇所困,因此戲班忌諱直呼「蛇」字,改以「溜」代替。

肩擔戲臺
此種舞台因舞台結構可拆解便於攜帶表演,因而得名。戲臺可將各部份拆解,裝在戲箱中,以扁擔扛在肩上行走,以便表演者四處賣藝,表演者一人要負責所有的表演及口白,可說是布袋戲表演藝術的原始樣貌。
彩樓
布袋戲廣為流傳之後,開始有了類似廟宇造型的戲臺,高寬各約四尺,深約一尺的『四角棚』,後來又出現了更加精美的『六角棚』,也就是俗稱的『彩樓』,其外型構造類似廟宇殿堂,除了富麗堂皇的金箔,木雕藝術也十分講究。
金光布袋戲戲臺
布袋戲進入內台戲院之後,由於傳統的木雕彩樓或小戲臺空間太窄、視野太淺,因此開始擴大、加寬,並多了鮮艷、亮麗、立體化和寫實或超寫實的佈景,以吸引更多的觀眾。

傳統布袋戲偶
台灣的布袋戲是在清中葉,從泉州、漳州、潮州等地傳入。剛開始都是由大陸的演師渡海來台表演,後來才逐漸發展出台灣布袋戲的特色,早期傳統布袋戲劇目也多由章回演義小說改編而成。
皇民化時期戲偶
進入日本統治台灣的皇民化時期戲偶帶有濃濃的日本風格,戲偶的服裝採用中日式合併,跟傳統戲偶的扮相完全不同,戲偶的口白也是台日語交雜,與傳統戲偶純粹以台語發音方式迥異,表演的劇情也都是日本的傳說故事為主。
反共抗俄時期戲偶
反共抗俄時期當時政府為穩定台灣局勢,在布袋戲主戲上演前的20分鐘演出反共抗俄政令宣導戲,戲偶穿著現代造型,例如戲偶穿著西服及梳西裝頭為扮相,帶有濃厚的政治色彩。
金光布袋戲偶
金光布袋戲偶尺寸比傳統戲偶大兩至三倍,戲偶偶頭不再依據傳統的生旦淨末丑的規則加以雕刻,而是以想像創作戲偶角色,因此創造出許多奇頭怪面的戲偶角色,戲偶服裝多綴以亮片或布條裝飾,甚至還會加以滾邊,五顏六色相當鮮豔,由於這些人物出場時,多伴隨的五彩布條,用來代表戲偶角色有高強的法力或是神力護體,因此被稱為金光戲偶。

戲曲類別分為北管及南管,北管音樂泛指大陸北方語系的戲曲音樂,音樂的樂風較為喧鬧,使用的樂器包含京胡、殼仔弦、嗩吶、鑼鼓等。多用於迎神、廟會、壽慶及婚禮等,可說是台灣早期的流行音樂,深受農業社會的喜愛。
南管音樂泛指大陸南方語系的音樂,台灣的南管承自福建泉州一帶,隨著閩南移民而傳入台灣,音樂樂風清雅悠揚,使用的樂器以管樂器和弦樂器為主,主要樂器包含三弦、二弦、拍板等。後期由於後場樂手漸難招致,同時劇團為減少開銷改採唱片做為布袋戲配樂,接著五洲園的黃俊雄先生啟用古今中外古典與流行音樂與歌曲的唱片,不久全省戲班幾乎全都採用唱片來配樂。

台灣傀儡戲俗稱「嘉禮戲」,南部傀儡戲較偏重喜慶祈福的酬神儀式,北部傀儡戲則較重視驅邪禳災的宗教功能,各具特色。
傳統戲曲中的各劇種皆有幾個主要的角色:生、旦、淨、末、丑、雜、獸。
生:指一般的男性角色,又可簡單分為書生型的文生,和會武功的武生。
旦:指各種不同身份、性格、年紀的女性角色,可分為小旦、武旦、老旦等等。
淨:指花臉,以複雜的臉譜圖案、不同的顏色,來表示其特別的個性。例如,黑色表示魯莽,紅色表示忠義,青色代表陰險等等。
末:指老年人的角色,生、旦、淨、丑中皆有末角,例如公末是年長的男性老者。
丑:指滑稽、充滿喜感的角色,是表演中的甘草人物。
雜:舉凡無法歸類到生、旦、淨、末、丑的角色,包括神仙、妖怪、精靈等等。
獸:指動物類的角色。

「影戲」是利用影子和光線來表演的一種戲劇,中國的影戲大致可分成「手影戲」、「紙影戲」和「皮影戲」三大類,其中又以皮影較耐久、雕刻藝術成就較高。最早的皮影戲偶是以素紙雕成,後改用獸皮,中國各地影戲使用的獸皮原料不盡相同,舉凡牛皮、羊皮、驢皮及豬皮都有人使用。「生」、「旦」這類的角色,臉部除了輪廓線,只留下五官,其餘全部鏤空,以顯白淨秀麗,此種刻法稱為陽刻。「淨」角則多留下塊面並誇張眉眼,以顯其剛烈,此種刻法稱為陰刻。通常正派人物的角度為五分像,反派和丑角則為六分或七分像。除了主要角色之外,皮影戲中還有不少的道具,或是動物、精怪之類的造型,讓整場表演更顯生動傳神。

懸絲戲偶是歷史悠久的傳統文化,因為操作不易,致使現在越來越少人了解這項傳統技藝,有感於此,來自台灣嘉義朴子溪畔蒜頭村「立青藝坊」的偶藝師黃憲章不斷鑽研、加以改良,擅長將情感注入戲偶靈魂,以貼近生活的概念出發,甘草人物造型為其一大特色,加入細膩的演繹方式,找到全新的偶戲創意,並在創作之外,致力於將偶戲藝術結合地方文化深耕推廣,無論是開設工作坊、美學講堂、或偏遠學校的藝術教育等等,透過多元管道與學員建立雙向交流,每每讓參與者收穫良多。
  製偶大師-黃憲章,投入提線木偶製作已經十多年,對他來說戲偶不只是一塊沒有生命的木頭,而是可以對應到人生,並蘊含老祖宗的智慧。有別於其他偶戲,懸絲戲偶比其他種類的戲偶看起來更像真人。要讓戲偶做出什麼動作,演出的舞臺設計,在製作之前都要思慮清楚,正因為表演道具與操偶更需要運用豐富的創意,讓黃憲章的創作獨具巧思。本次展覽為黃憲章老師首度於台北舉辦個展,內容將結合台灣在地文化故事,結合台灣傳統5、60年代農業社會廟口風情及結婚迎娶習俗等辦桌文化,不僅呈現出台灣在地農村生活,更能勾勒出長輩們對童年的美好回憶,使民眾與展覽零距離。同時並結合西方童話故事為襯,加入西方馬戲元素,打造充滿童趣的異想世界,都將透過懸絲偶一一呈現。此外,並首度完整公開黃憲章老師戲偶製作過程,能近距離貼近偶藝師創作歷程的奇幻世界,將藉由展覽帶領觀眾一同沉浸悠遊於偶戲的奧妙趣味之中!

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